back Chininum Sulphuricum

Synonym. - Sulphate of Quinine.

Common name. - Quinine.

Preparation- Triturations.

The physiological action of Quinine is not definitely settled.  Probably its chief center of action is upon the base of the brain and the ganglionic nerve centers, yet it is equally probable that the cerebro-spinal system is primarily affected.  From these centers of action the drug exerts its power upon nearly every organ and tissue of the body.  The blood becomes hyperfibrinized, and the number of red corpuscles are diminished, thus causing leucocythsemia and anaemia, resulting in general debility and prostration, for which it is a true homoeopathic remedy.  The force and frequency of the heart's action are at first increased, afterward diminished and enfeebled, and the temperature of the body reduced, the vasomotor nerve centers being at first stimulated and afterward paralyzed.  Hyperemia of local parts, bordering upon inflammation, may be set up ; the cerebrum being especially involved in this action, as is evinced by the characteristic brain symptoms so commonly manifest.  Thus Quinine is homoeopathic to inflammations and fevers, as well as to the conditions of debility which result therefrom.  The likeness of its pathogenesis to those conditions resulting from malarial poisoning is sufficient to explain its successful use in the treatment of intermittent and pernicious fevers, in which it may be, and often is, the true homoeopathic remedy.  The spleen becomes enlarged and hypertrophied, its blood-making properties being destroyed, thus aiding in the production of an anaemic condition.  This is accomplished through the profound action had upon the pneumogastric nerve, by which also the liver becomes paretic and congested, causing jaundice, and giving rise to many functional disturbances of the digestive tract.  The supra-orbital branch of the trigeminus is especially affected by Quinine, which causes hypersesthesia and severe neuralgic pains, without necessarily having associated there with malaria or other disturbing influences, as is usually the case when other local nerves are affected.  Quinine causes blindness and deafness, and produces stupor, delirium, and even convulsions.  The most important feature of the action of Quinine is the intermittent character of the attacks which it produces, and the general resemblance of its effects to those which result from malaria.  Dr. Allen well remarks that while Quinine "arrests the development of low forms of vegetable life, and especially of the poison of marsh malaria, it rarely antidotes the effects of the poison on the system"; and for this reason the drug is very seldom useful in the treatment of the many phases of chronic malarial poisoning, or even in acute cases after the effects of the poison are well developed.

Mind.- Buoyancy, excited state; later despondency.  Feeling of impending evil (Alum., Anac, Ars., Calc. a);  anxiety.   Memory " muddled"; thoughts not clear.

Head. - Whirling in head like a mill wheel.  Vertigo with buzzing in ears, difficult breathing and sickness at stomach. Heaviness and confusion of head.  Violent headache; throbbing, pressive, or tearing pains in forehead and temples.  Frontal headache; a shaking pain; feels every step; begins toward noon with chill.  oIntermittent neuralgia at regular hours.  oIntermittent headache; violent throbbing, with vertigo and heat in face; involuntary closing of eyelids from prostration.  oHeadache; pain not severe, but day after day and week after week the brain is one continued ache.  Distension of veins about head and neck.

Eyes. - Disk and retina very anaemic; disk looks dry.  Dim vision, as from a net or from a fog (Caust., Phos., Merc, Puls., Sulph.).  Pupils dilated (Bell., Hyos., Stram.).  Eyes very sensitive to light (Acon., Bell., Cinch.); lachrymation; in the full glare of light.  Bright light and sparks before the eyes. (Cycl., Merc). Neuralgic twitches in supra and infra-orbital nerves; generally periodic, intermittent strabismus; child would squint one day and be entirely well the next.  Conjunctiva injected; lids red and swollen, pupils contracted; lachrymation; extreme photophobia; tearing in orbit, and headache, with thirst and fever; all appearing every second day.  Black spot, size of pin's head, moves with right eye.  Blindness.  Twitching of the eyelids (Agar.).  oSevere supraorbital neuralgia (Bell., Cinch., Spig.); occurring daily.

Ears.- Ringing and roaring in the ears (Acon., Ars., Bell., Cinch., Sulph.); also with deafness. Buzzing in ears.

Nose.- oViolent epistaxis of young persons.

Face- Pale; suffering; sickly; puffy; earthy; Oedematous.  Aching about left malar bone.  Jaundiced hue of face and conjunctiva.  Neuralgia of left lower jaw (Cinch., Spig.).  Facial neuralgia; morning periodicity; commences under eye, and extends into and around it.

Mouth.- Mouth dry.  Thirst, mostly only during sweat.  Tongue white (Ant. c, Bry., Merc); thick yellow fur; yellow at root (Merc. iod.); flabby (Merc).  Saliva increased (Cinch., Merc, Iodi., Nitr. ac).  Excessive repugnance to all food.  Taste pasty, flat or bitter.  Speech disturbed or difficult (Caust., Gels., Hyos.).

Stomach.- Anorexia, or loss of appetite. Eructations; pyrosia; hiccough; nausea; vomiting.  Pressure in pit of stomach.  Pressure in stomach after eating, followed by cutting pains in abdomen.  oDyspepsia or cardialgia, with nausea, loathing of food, eructations, bitter taste, vomiting of bile.

Abdomen. - Pain in region of liver shortly before going to bed.  oPainful enlargement of spleen after intermittent; also with dropsy (Ars.).  Dull pain in region of spleen, disappearing on pressure; also stitches in spleen.  Distension of abdomen, with much rumbling and discharge of flatus (Carb. v., Cinch., Lyc.., Sulph.).  Violent cutting, colicky pains, especially in region of transverse colon; also after eating.  oRelaxed condition of digestive organs of old people.

Stool.- oDysentery; the fever intermits, or the evacuations exhale a gangrenous odor (Ars.).  Nightly diarrhoea.  Constipation or soft stools, followed by weakness.  Stools pappy, frothy, frequent with much wind.

Urine.- Deposit of a straw-yellow, granular, or of a brick-red sediment.  Urine turbid, high-colored, and of a strong, urinous odor (Benz. ac).  Hematuria; albuminuria.

Female Organs. - Passive metrorrhagia, with diminished irritability.

Respiratory Organs.- Cough caused by tickling in the larynx and bronchi.  Breaching increased, slow, irregular (Digit.).  Oppression of the chest, can scarcely breathe from weakness.  oStitches and sticking pains in sides of chest (Bry., Kali carb.); intercostal neuralgia.

Heart and Pulse.- Precordial anxiety; palpitation; heart feeble; general prostration (Acon., Ars., Digit.).  Pulse full and large; weak, trembling, scarcely perceptible (Acon., Ars.).

Neck and Back.- Sensitiveness of last cervical and first dorsal vertebrae to pressure, also of dorsal vertebrae.  Third dorsal painful to touch, with oppression of the chest (Phos.).  oPeriodical pains in back; returning about midnight, and extending into head; spinal irritation.

Limbs.- Weakness; trembling; power of will over limbs seem greatly hampered.  Hands cold, and cold sweat, inflammatory rheumatism; acute, articular; fever, remitting or intermitting; joints exquisitely sensitive (Cinch.).  Heaviness and aching in all the limbs, and especially in joints.  oSciatic neuralgia on right side.

Generalities.-- Restlessness; excessive sensibility to touch and to noises.  Internal bad feeling, as of coming illness.  Weakness; trembling; faintness; hunger. oGreat sensitiveness to external influences. Great weariness, heaviness and disinclination to work.   Intermittent neuralgic pains in various parts.  Symptoms return periodically (Ars.), on alternate days (Cinch.), or antepone. oSuppuration, with chilliness (Hep. s., Merc.); profuse sweat (Ars., Cinch., Phos., Sulph. ac). oOedema, especially with liver and spleen affections (Ars.); malaria (Ars., Cinch.).  oFeels weak and nervous; a little exercise gives him palpitation.  oDebility, caused by considerable loss of fluids; particularly after weahening loss of blood (Cinch.).  Twitching or clonic spasms in limbs.  Tetanic convulsions, with loss of consciousness.

Sleep.- Sleeplessness ; ofrom overstimulation of the nervous system.

Fever. - Chill, regular paroxysm at the same hour (Ced.).  Decided shaking chill at 3 p.m.  Distinct cold, hot and sweating stages, and a perfect apyrexia.

Chill 10-11 a.m. (Natr. mur.) and 3-10 p.m., periodical, anteponing, tertian (Cinch.), or quartan; trembling of the limbs; pain in spleen (Ars.); spine sensitive; face pale; thirst; lips blue; ringing in the ears (Cinch.).  General chilliness, especially in the back. Extremities, also nose and chin, cold. Bodily temperature diminished.  Heat intense; fullness of head; face red; great thirst; after going to bed, heat, with frequent yawning and sneezing; delirious; veins on arms and legs enlarge; skin hot and dry.  Pain in spine on pressure.  Flushes of heat with thirst 4 p.m.

Sweat with thirst; profuse even while quiet; coming on gradually after the heat; profuse also on least motion (Calc. c, Merc, Phos.); very profuse mornings in bed (Calc. c., Nitr. ac, Phos.); profuse, exhausting, nightly diarrhoea; profuse sweat during sleep (Cinch., Phos.); debilitating sweat.

Conditions. - Cachectic persons weakened by loss of blood.

Compare.- Ars., Ced., Cinch., Eupat., Ferr., Lach., Natr. mur.

 

THERAPEUTICS. The clinical uses of Quinine have been detailed in the fore, going general analysis and symptomatology.  It is undoubtedly most often useful in intermittent fever when the paroxysms recur at the same hour every day or every other day, or else occur a little earlier each day; distinct stages, apyrexia perfect ; generally great sensitiveness and pain on pressure in dorsal region.  In such cases the drug is homoeopathic and will cure.  More often it is prescribed from a physiological standpoint and without proper indications, when it may temporarily neutralize the poison but does not cure, only having the effect of complicating the case with other symptoms and conditions, which makes its cure by the appropriate remedy all the more difficult.  Quinine may be indicated in all conditions of malarial origin, if the symptoms agree, but not upon a pathological basis alone; remittent, and pernicious fevers; congestive chills; enlarged spleen; enlarged and congested liver; jaundice; anaemia; leucocythemia; debility.  To be thought of when typhoid fever, eruptive fevers, pneumonia, etc., display intermittent symptoms, or become rapidly pernicious; inflammations and suppurations; oedema; congestion of the brain; apoplexia; neuralgia; spinal irritation; rheumatism; dyspepsia; deafness; amaurosis, etc.


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