back Crotalus Horridus

Natural order. - Ophidia. Common name. - Rattlesnake. Preparation.- The venom is received on milk-sugar and triturated.

Like other serpent poisons Crotalus acts primarily upon the cerebro-spinal nerve centers, producing secondarily decom- position of the blood, a destruction of blood fibrine, hemor- rhages, ecchymosis, etc. (see Lachesis). The most essential peculiarity of Crotalus is the similarity of its poisoning to that induced by yellow fever, in the treatment of which we find its chief use.

Mind.- Delirium, especially at night. Torpor, coma. oMut- tering delirium of typhoid. Delirium, with wide open eyes. Dullness of the intellect; confused speech, disconnected answers. Remarkable weakness of memory (Anac, Kreos.). oDelirium tremens, nearly constant drowsiness, but with inability to sleep; also in broken down constitu- tions. Melancholia, with timidity, fear, anxiety; weeping or snappish temper.

Head - Headache extending into the eyes; above the eyes, with oppression. Stitches and pains in temples. Severe pain at center of forehead; dilated pupils; profuse menses. Heavy pressive headache; in occiput. Violent itching of the scalp (Carb. an., Sulph.).

Eyes.- Yellow color of the eyes (Chel., Podo., lodi., Plumb.); also of the whole body. Blue rings about the eyes. Blood exudes from the eye. Dim vision. Burning in the eyes. Aqueous humor, cloudy. Pressure and oppression above the eyes.

Nose. - Bleeding from the nose and all the orifices of the body. oEpistaxis during diphtheria. oOzoena of syphilitic origin or following exanthemata; sanguinolent discharge.

Face.- Yellow color of the face (Chel., Podo.), or leaden colored.

Mouth.- -Gums white. Bleeding of the gums. Grinds the teeth at night. Swelling and inflammation of the tongue. Loss of speech from constriction of the tongue and throat.

Throat.- Throat dry, with thirst. Great difficulty in swallowing anything solid.

Stomach.- Unquenchable burning thirst. Stomach irritable, unable to retain anything. Hunger, with trembling and weakness. Vomiting of food; of green fluid; of blood; often violent. Painfulness in pit of stomach. Intolerance of clothing about the epigastric region and beneath the hypochondria (Calc. c, Lach.).

Abdomen.- Swelling of the whole abdomen. Burning pain in the abdomen (Ars.). oInguinal glands enlarged; sloughing, unhealthy pus.

Stool and Anus.- Bleeding from the anus and other outlets of the body (Ham.). Diarrhoea; dysenteric discharges of dark fluid blood; involuntary; great debility and faintness.

Urinary Organs.- Haemorrhage from the urethra. Yellow or reddish-yellow urine, from much bile. oAlbuminuria in the course of typhoid, diphtheria, etc.; urine smoky from transuded blood.

Female Organs.- Dys men orrhoea; before menses; pain in hypogastrium and down thighs; flow copious for two days, then lingers on and off for four more; heart weak; feet cold.

Respiratory Organs.- Hoarseness, with weak, rough voice. Moderate cough, with expectoration of bloody mucus. Difficult respiration. oWhooping cough; debility; face blue or pale, remaining so for a time after the paroxysms; epistaxis; puffed face. oOppression in old people with hydrothorax; in fever and ague.

Pulse. - Pulse rapid and weak, scarcely perceptible (Acon., Ars. ) . Palpitation as if heart tumbled about.

Generalities.- Extremities inflamed, swollen and gangrenous (Ars., Lach.). Hands go to sleep, more the left. Trembling of the hands during rest. Oedematous swelling of the whole body (Apis, Ars.). Hemorrhages from all the ori fices of the body- eyes, ears, nose, mouth, urethra, etc.; also from the gums and from beneath the nails. Easily tired by slight exertion. General loss of power; the muscles refuse their service. Tremulous weakness all over, as if some evil were apprehended. Paralysis. Yellow color of the whole body (Chel, Iodi., Podo.).

Sleep.- Sleeplessness from disproportionate nervous agitation. Drowsy, but cannot sleep.

Skin.- oChilblains. Gangrene pending; circulation sluggish.

Fever.- oDry skin, dark-brown; tongue dry, or tongue coated yellow, with red edges and tip; low muttering delirium; drowsiness; urine dark, scanty; hemorrhagic tendency; vomiting of bile or blood, etc.

Compare.- Apis, Ars., Canth., Carb. v., Chel., Maps, Lach., Naja, Tarent.

Antidotes.- Amm., Camph., Alcohol, radiated heat.

THERAPEUTICS.

The chief clinical use of Crotalus is in the treatment of low, malignant fevers, and adynamic conditions in general, especially when characterized by a hcemorrhagic tendency, and putrescence, and whether caused by zymotic or septic poisoning, or by previous low states of the system, blood poisoning predominating. In all such conditions there is also great prostration; low, muttering delirium; vomiting of bile or blood; tongue, dry, brown, cracked, or yellow, brown in center, red edges; urine scanty, dark, almost black, sometimes suppressed, etc. In this class of diseases, in which it may be indicated, and has been frequently used with success, are: malignant scarlet fever, also with epistaxis, dark red, tumid, or gangrenous tonsils; diphtheria; hemorrhagic measles, eruption dark, confluent; malignant remittent fevers of the south, especially the so-called hemorrhagic malarial fevers; low bilious fevers; typhoid. The most important remedy for yellow fever. Pyemia. Septicemia from poisoned wounds (dissecting, etc.). Jaundice. Hemorrhages from any orifice of the body, also from the gums and from beneath the nails, resulting from low conditions of the blood. Purpura hemorrhagica. Petechia. Inflammations of a low type. Cerebro-spinal meningitis. Ecchymosis. Effusions into inner organs. Gangrenous tendencies. Low forms of erysipelas, with symptoms above named, especially following poisoned wounds or bites of poisonous insects. Abscesses, boils, carbuncles, etc., with unhealthy appearance, symptoms of blood poisoning. Chilblains, threatening gangrene. Felons with adynsemic symptoms. Bad effects from vaccination, pustular eruptions, erysipelas, gangrene, blood poisoning. Has been used in paralysis. Chronic rheumatism, also gonorrhoea! rheumatism. Tetanus (a case cured by injecting the poison). Delirium tremens; also gastralgia, atonic dyspepsia and blood states from long continued abuse of alcohol. Dysmenorrhea. Ciliary neuralgia and Keratitis, cutting pains around the eyes; worse at menstrual periods. Whooping cough. Otorrhoea. Syphilitic ozoena. Softening of spinal cord.


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