back Iodium

Common name. - Iodine. Preparation. - One part by weight of resublimed Iodine, dissolved in ninety-nine parts by weight of Alcohol, makes the 2x dilution; subsequent dilutions made with Alcohol.

GENERAL ANALYSIS.

Iodine has a wide range of action, affecting almost every organ and tissue of the body, but more especially the lymphatic glands and the mucous tissues, having a depressing and atonizing influence, impairing their reproductive energies and producing functional embarrassment, atrophy, and even total destruction of the part with general emaciation. So, also, in some instances of glandular action, notably upon the thyroid, do we find the loss of reproductive and functional power resulting in cellular hypertrophy, the gland assuming the proportions of a morbid growth, due to the same causes as will at other times produce atrophy. The glandular action of Iodine is especially centered upon the thyroid, the mesenteric, the mammae, ovaries and testicles. On the mucous membranes a catarrhal inflammation is produced, especially of the eyes and nose, and which may involve the entire respiratory tract. The lungs may also become involved in the inflammatory action, as well as other parenchymatous organs. The chief feature of the drug is emaciation, both local and general, which accompanies nearly all Iodine conditions.

CHARACTERISTIC SYMPTOMS.

Mind.- Sadness; melancholy mood (Natr. mur., Puls.). Excessive nervous excitability (Cinch., Coff.).

Head. - Vertigo; throbbing in the head and all over the body (Puls., Sep.); tremor at the heart, fainting; worse immediately after rising from a seat or bed (Bry.), or by sitting or lying down after slight exercise. Confusion in head, with aversion to earnest work. Headache, as from a band around the head (Gels., Merc, Puls., Spig., Sulph.). Pain in a small spot above root of nose. Pain above the eyes towards evening, worse from noise and talk. Sharp pain in upper part of left side of forehead. Pain in occiput before 11 a.m.; better from rest, worse from motion of body, changing at 4 p.m. to confusion of head.

Eyes. - Dirty yellowish color of the sclerotica (Cinch., Camph., Chel., Plumb.). Protrusion of the balls. Inflamed eyes from taking cold. Pain as from excoriation in the eyes. (Edematous swelling of the lids.

Ears. - Difficult hearing.

Nose. - Dry coryza, worse evenings, becoming fluent in the open air. Fluent coryza with much sneezing; sudden, violent with lachrymation, pain in eyes; then violent cough and nausea, difficult almost wheezing respiration, feeling as if larynx were constricted externally. Blowing of much yellow mucus from the nose (Puls.).

Face.- Face pale, yellowish (Arg. nit., Hep., Sulph., Sep.), or greenish. Sallow, distressed countenance. Bluish lips, with swelling of the superficial veins. Swelling of the submaxillary glands (Aur., Baryt. c, Coccul., Sil.).

Mouth. - Bleeding of the gums (Carb. v., Merc, Nitr. ac). Softening of the gums. Teeth covered with much mucus in the morning; yellow and easily blunted by vegetable acids. Apthse in the mouth {Borax, Hell., Merc.). Offensive odor from the mouth (Arn.). Salivation {Merc.). Also after Mercury {Cinch., Nitr. ac). Tongue loaded with thick coating.

Throat. - Constriction in the throat, impeding deglutition (Bell., Hyos., Stram.). Ulcers in throat, with swelling of glands of neck. Inflammation and ulceration of the oesophagus.

Stomach. - Ravenous hunger; cannot b*e satisfied (Bry.). Appetite diminished; lost. Nausea; vomiting renewed by eating. Thirst. Heartburn after indigestible food.

Abdomen. - Pain between pit of stomach and umbilicus. Inflammation of the liver, with pain, hardness and swelling. Pressure in right hypochondrium; with pain on touch. Left hypochondrium hard and painful to pressure. Swelling and distension of the abdomen (Ant. crud., Graph., Hep. s.). Incarcerated flatulence (Carb. v., Lyc.). Swelling of the inguinal glands (Calc. c, Clem., Merc).

Stool and Anus.- Burning in anus in evening (Sulph.). diarrhoea, alternating with constipation (Ant. erud., Cimic, Nux v.). Stools watery; foaming, whitish mucus; soft, frequent.

Urinary Organs.- Copious and frequent micturition (Apis, Arg. nit., Arg. met., Cepa). Involuntary.

Male Organs. - Swelling and induration of the testicles (Acon., Arg. nit., Coni.).

Female Organs.- oInduration and swelling of uterus and ovaries (Coni.). oA wedge-like pain from right ovary to uterus. The mammae dwindle away and become flabby; atrophy (Coni.). oUterine haemorrhage renewed after every stool. oLeucorrhoea acrid, corroding the limbs; worse at time of menses.

Respiratory Organs. - Hoarseness (Acon., Hep. s., Phos.). Pain in the larynx with desire to cough; frequent pain and stitches in larynx and sublingual glands. Smarting in region of trachea, with frequent lancinations. Croupy eough. Tightness of respiration, difficult, especially inspiration. oMembranous croup (Brom., Kali bi.), with wheezing and sawing respiration; dry barking cough (Spong.); child grasps throat with the hand (Acon.). o(Edema glottidis (may be used by inhalation). Dry cough, with stitches and burning in chest. Cough, with expectoration of large quantities of mucus, frequently blood-streaked. Sensation of weakness in chest (Stan.). Constriction of the chest. Sharp, qiiick piercing pains. oTendency to bronchial and pulmonary congestion and haemorrhages, hepatization; worse upper part of right lung; sometimes rapid; tightness across chest.

Seart and Pulse. - Violent palpitation; worse from the least exertion. Constant, heavy oppressive pain in region of heart (Cact., Lil. tig.), with sharp, quick, piercing, movable pains. Great precordial anxiety, obliging him to constantly change his position (Acon., Ars., Rhus tox.). Pulse rapid, small, weak, with tumultuous, irregular, at times intermittent action of heart.

Neck.- o Goitre, with marked hardness. Swelling and indura- tion of the cervical glands (Baryt. c., Calc. c, Kreos.).

Limbs.- oSubsultus tendinum of both hands and feet. Trembling of the limbs. Tearing pain in left elbow (Ars., Ferr.). (Edematous swelling of feet. Acrid, corrosive foot sweat.

Generalities. - Emaciation (Natr. mar., Phos.); ending in marasmus; of glandular tissues (mammae, testicles, thyroid gland, etc.). Great debility and prostration {Ars., Bry., Ferr., Phos.). Twitching of muscles (Agar., Cic, Ign., Strain.). Swelling and induration of glands (Baryt. c, Calc. c, Graph., Nafcr. carb.). Profuse night sweats ( Cinch., Phos., Phos. ac Sil.). oChronic arthritic affections, with violent nightly pains in the joints; no swelling. Rapid failing of strengh. (Edematous swelling of the whole body. oPlastic exudations. oMarked fever; restlessness; thirst; throbbing headache; circumscribed red cheeks (Sang.); apathetic.

Skin.- Dirty-yellow, clammy, moist skin (Ferr., Merc). Rough, dry skin.

Conditions.- Especially suitable to persons, particularly children, with dark hair and eyes. To scrofulous persons, old people.

Compare.- Acon., Ars., Brom., Caust., Coni., Digit., Hep. s., Kali bi., Merc, Nitr. ac, Phos., Spong., Sulph.

Antidotes.- Ant. tart., Ars., Bell., Cam ph., Chin, sulph., Cinch., Coff., Hep. s., Op., Phos., Spong., Sulph. To large doses : Starch or wheat flour in water.

Iodine Antidotes.- Effect of Ars., Arg. nit., Calc. c, Merc

THERAPEUTICS.

Iodine is especially useful in scrofulous affections, where rapid emaciation, notwithstanding a ravenous hunger, is characteristic, the patient being hungry all the time, and eating immoderately, yet continually, and sometimes very rapidly, losing flesh. Marasmus. Wasting disease in scrofulous subjects. Atrophy of glands. Enlargement and induration of glands; usually painless. According to Ferrington, "there is a characteristic of Iodine which is universal, and that characteristic is torpidity and sluggishness. The very indolence of the disease is suggestive of Iodine." This is especially true of the glandular enlargements. Most prominently useful in goitre (Spongia) given internally; its external application will often dissipate the goitre, but may be followed by serious pulmonary complications. Enlargement of the parotids; mammae; testicles, etc. Hydrocele. Enlargement of lymphatic glands. Tabes mesenterica. Often indicated in chronic enlargement and induration of the tonsils. Also in ulceration of the throat with swollen glands, either from syphilis or Mercury. Iritis, especially of syphilitic origin. Chronic catarrh of the middle ear, also of the Eustachian tube, with deafness, roaring in ears, etc. Acute coryza, especially scrofulous subjects, with sneezing, hot mucous discharge, headache at root of nose and over nose, fever, etc. Inflammation of the spleen with salivation. Acute and chronic inflammation of the liver, cirrhosis; jaundice, hard, painful swelling. Acute and chronic disease of the pancreas, with salivation; fatty diarrhoea; watery, foaming stools; or constipation. Diabetes with characteristic hunger and emaciation, yellow skin, etc. Has been found useful in some female diseases in scrofulous subjects, especially when associated with atrophy of the mammary glands. (See Clinical Symptoms already given.) Many cases of ovarian cysts reported cured by Iodine. Cancer of the uterus with profuse haemorrhages, and other characteristic Iodine conditions. Iodine is often a valuable remedy in scrofulous ulcers, especially with swollen glands; the ulcers have spongy edges, and discharge a bloody, ichorous or even purulent matter. Iodine is an extremely valuable remedy in croupous inflammation of the larynx and trachea, either acute or chronic. Great hoarseness and hard croapy cough, difficult inspiration, etc. Allen says {Hand Booh of Materia Medica, p. 570): "A large number of cases of membranous croup have been cured by the lower dilutions; our experience is that it is indicated in cases in the early stage, with more or less fever, with dry skin and a very dry cough, great difficulty in respiration; it follows closely after Acon.; if Aeon, has been given and the patient is not improving, or if Aeon, has relieved only the restlessness and extreme anxiety, but not the cough, the patient is still dry and hot and the cough is still croupy, then give Iod. It is, however, rarely useful after febrile excitement has disappeared, or if the patient perspires freely (this stage, together with the attacks of suffocative cough, indicate Brom. instead of Iod.)." (See Respiratory Symptoms.) Whooping cough. A valuable remedy in pneumonia when, after Acon., exudation has occurred, the anxiety and stitching pain being relieved, but a high fever remaining. Especially when the apex of the lung is involved, and when occurring in scrofulous subjects. Laryngeal and pulmonary phthisis, with characteristic symptoms. Sometimes indicated in cardiac disease, with great precordial anxiety, palpitation, sharp pain, and general Iodine conditions; valvular insufficiency with dilitation; pericarditis, especially when complicating pneumonia, with Iodine indications. Hypertrophy of the heart. Iodine has been found useful in certain forms of articular rheumatism, especially when occurring in scrofulous subjects, or resulting from syphilis or Mercury. The symptoms are usually worse at night, and the patient presents the general Iodine conditions already mentioned. Kheumatism of the heart. Synovitis, subacute, with fistulous openings with bloody ichorous discharges. Scrofulous affections of joints. Gonorrhoea! rheumatism. Mollites ossium.


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